Clean and Unclean Meats

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Animal Status

Clean Animals

Animals That Chew the
Cud and Part the Hoof

Antelope
Bison (buffalo)
Caribou
Cattle (beef, veal)
Deer (venison)

Elk
Gazelle
Giraffe
Goat
Hart
Ibex

Moose
Ox
Reindeer
Sheep (lamb, mutton)

Fish With Fins and Scales

Anchovy
Barracuda
Bass
Black pomfret (or monchong)
Bluefish
Bluegill

Carp
Cod
Crappie
Drum
Flounder
Grouper

Grunt
Haddock
Hake
Halibut
Hardhead
Herring (or alewife)

Kingfish
Mackerel
Mahimahi (or dorado, dolphinfish[not
to be confused with the mammal dolphin])

Minnow
Mullet
Perch (or bream)

Pike (or pickerel or jack)
Pollack (or pollock or Boston bluefish)
Rockfish
Salmon
Sardine (or pilchard)
Shad

Silver hake (or whiting)
Smelt (or frost fish or ice fish)
Snapper (or ebu, jobfish, lehi, onaga, opakapaka or uku)
Sole
Steelhead
Sucker

Sunfish
Tarpon
Trout (or weakfish)
Tuna (or ahi, aku, albacore, bonito
or tombo)
Whitefish

Birds With Clean Characteristics

Chicken
Dove
Duck
Goose

Grouse
Guinea fowl
Partridge
Peafowl
Pheasant
Pigeon

Prairie chicken
Ptarmigan
Quail
Sagehen
Sparrow (and other songbirds)
Swan*

Teal
Turkey

Insects

Types of locusts that may include crickets and grasshoppers

Unclean Animals

Animals With Unclean
Characteristics

Swine

Boar

Peccary
Pig (hog, bacon, ham, lard, pork, most sausage and pepperoni)

Canines

Coyote
Dog

Fox
Hyena
Jackal
Wolf

Felines

Cat
Cheetah
Leopard
Lion
Panther

Tiger

Equines

Ass
Donkey
Horse

Mule
Onager
Zebra (quagga)

Other

Armadillo

Badger
Bear
Beaver
Camel
Elephant
Gorilla

Groundhog
Hare
Hippopotamus
Kangaroo
Llama (alpaca, vicuña)
Mole

Monkey
Mouse
Muskrat
Opossum
Porcupine
Rabbit

Raccoon
Rat
Rhinoceros
Skunk
Slug
Snail (escargot)

Squirrel
Wallaby
Weasel
Wolverine
Worm
All insects except some in the locust

family

Marine Animals Without Scales and Fins

Fish

Bullhead

Catfish
Eel
European Turbot
Marlin
Paddlefish
Sculpin

Shark
Stickleback
Squid
Sturgeon (includes most caviar)
Swordfish

Shellfish

Abalone
Clam
Crab
Crayfish
Lobster

Mussel
Prawn
Oyster
Scallop
Shrimp

Soft body

Cuttlefish
Jellyfish
Limpet
Octopus

Squid (calamari)

Sea mammals

Dolphin
Otter
Porpoise

Seal
Walrus
Whale

Birds of Prey, Scavengers and Others

Albatross

Bat
Bittern
Buzzard
Condor
Coot
Cormorant

Crane
Crow
Cuckoo
Eagle
Flamingo

Grebe

Grosbeak
Gull
Hawk
Heron
Kite
Lapwing

Loon
Magpie
Osprey
Ostrich
Owl
Parrot

Pelican
Penguin
Plover
Rail
Raven
Roadrunner

Sandpiper
Seagull
Stork
Swallow
Swift
Vulture

Water hen
Woodpecker

Reptiles

Alligator
Caiman

Crocodile
Lizard
Snake
Turtle

Amphibians

Blindworm
Frog
Newt
Salamander
Toad

Leviticus 11

The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, 2 "Say to the Israelites: 'Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat: 3 You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud.

4 "'There are some that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you. 5 The hyrax, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you. 6 The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you. 7 And the pig, though it has a divided hoof, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you. 8 You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.

9 "Of all the creatures living in the water of the seas and the streams you may eat any that have fins and scales. 10 But all creatures in the seas or streams that do not have fins and scales—whether among all the swarming things or among all the other living creatures in the water—you are to regard as unclean. 11 And since you are to regard them as unclean, you must not eat their meat; you must regard their carcasses as unclean. 12 Anything living in the water that does not have fins and scales is to be regarded as unclean by you.

13 "'These are the birds you are to regard as unclean and not eat because they are unclean: the eagle,[a] the vulture, the black vulture, 14 the red kite, any kind of black kite, 15 any kind of raven, 16 the horned owl, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk, 17 the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl, 18 the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey, 19 the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe and the bat.

20 "'All flying insects that walk on all fours are to be regarded as unclean by you. 21 There are, however, some flying insects that walk on all fours that you may eat: those that have jointed legs for hopping on the ground. 22 Of these you may eat any kind of locust, katydid, cricket or grasshopper. 23 But all other flying insects that have four legs you are to regard as unclean.

24 "'You will make yourselves unclean by these; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening. 25 Whoever picks up one of their carcasses must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.

26 "'Every animal that does not have a divided hoof or that does not chew the cud is unclean for you; whoever touches the carcass of any of them will be unclean. 27 Of all the animals that walk on all fours, those that walk on their paws are unclean for you; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening. 28 Anyone who picks up their carcasses must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening. These animals are unclean for you.

29 "'Of the animals that move along the ground, these are unclean for you: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard, 30 the gecko, the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink and the chameleon. 31 Of all those that move along the ground, these are unclean for you. Whoever touches them when they are dead will be unclean till evening. 32 When one of them dies and falls on something, that article, whatever its use, will be unclean, whether it is made of wood, cloth, hide or sackcloth. Put it in water; it will be unclean till evening, and then it will be clean. 33 If one of them falls into a clay pot, everything in it will be unclean, and you must break the pot. 34 Any food you are allowed to eat that has come into contact with water from any such pot is unclean, and any liquid that is drunk from such a pot is unclean. 35 Anything that one of their carcasses falls on becomes unclean; an oven or cooking pot must be broken up. They are unclean, and you are to regard them as unclean. 36 A spring, however, or a cistern for collecting water remains clean, but anyone who touches one of these carcasses is unclean. 37 If a carcass falls on any seeds that are to be planted, they remain clean. 38 But if water has been put on the seed and a carcass falls on it, it is unclean for you.

39 "'If an animal that you are allowed to eat dies, anyone who touches its carcass will be unclean till evening. 40 Anyone who eats some of its carcass must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening. Anyone who picks up the carcass must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.

41 "'Every creature that moves along the ground is to be regarded as unclean; it is not to be eaten. 42 You are not to eat any creature that moves along the ground, whether it moves on its belly or walks on all fours or on many feet; it is unclean. 43 Do not defile yourselves by any of these creatures. Do not make yourselves unclean by means of them or be made unclean by them. 44 I am the Lord your God; consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am holy. Do not make yourselves unclean by any creature that moves along the ground. 45 I am the Lord, who brought you up out of Egypt to be your God; therefore be holy, because I am holy.

46 "'These are the regulations concerning animals, birds, every living thing that moves about in the water and every creature that moves along the ground. 47 You must distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between living creatures that may be eaten and those that may not be eaten.'"

Deuteronomy 14

14 You are the children of the Lord your God. Do not cut yourselves or shave the front of your heads for the dead, 2 for you are a people holy to the Lord your God. Out of all the peoples on the face of the earth, the Lord has chosen you to be his treasured possession.

3 Do not eat any detestable thing. 4 These are the animals you may eat: the ox, the sheep, the goat, 5 the deer, the gazelle, the roe deer, the wild goat, the ibex, the antelope and the mountain sheep.[a] 6 You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud. 7 However, of those that chew the cud or that have a divided hoof you may not eat the camel, the rabbit or the hyrax. Although they chew the cud, they do not have a divided hoof; they are ceremonially unclean for you. 8 The pig is also unclean; although it has a divided hoof, it does not chew the cud. You are not to eat their meat or touch their carcasses.

9 Of all the creatures living in the water, you may eat any that has fins and scales. 10 But anything that does not have fins and scales you may not eat; for you it is unclean.

11 You may eat any clean bird. 12 But these you may not eat: the eagle, the vulture, the black vulture, 13 the red kite, the black kite, any kind of falcon, 14 any kind of raven, 15 the horned owl, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk, 16 the little owl, the great owl, the white owl, 17 the desert owl, the osprey, the cormorant, 18 the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe and the bat.

19 All flying insects are unclean to you; do not eat them. 20 But any winged creature that is clean you may eat.

21 Do not eat anything you find already dead. You may give it to the foreigner residing in any of your towns, and they may eat it, or you may sell it to any other foreigner. But you are a people holy to the Lord your God.